maddy implements a number of schemes and protocols for discovery and enforcement of security features supported by the recipient MTA.
Introduction to the problems of secure SMTP
Outbound delivery security involves two independent problems:
- MX record authentication
- TLS enforcement
MX record authentication
When MTA wants to deliver a message to a mailbox at remote domain, it needs to discover the server to use for it. It is done through the lookup of DNS MX records for the recipient.
Problem arises from the fact that DNS does not have any cryptographic protection and so any malicious actor can technically modify the response to contain any server. And MTA would use that server!
There are two protocols that solve this problem: MTA-STS and DNSSEC. Former requires the MTA to verify used records against a list of rules published via HTTPS. Later cryptographically signs the records themselves.
By default, server-server SMTP is unencrypted. If remote server supports TLS, it is advertised via the ESMTP extension named STARTTLS, but malicious actor controlling communication channel can hide the support for STARTTLS and sender MTA will have to use plaintext. There needs to be a out-of-band authenticated channel to indicate TLS support (and to require its use).
MTA-STS and DANE solve this problem. In the first case, if policy is in "enforce" mode then MTA is required to use TLS when delivering messages to a remote server. DANE does pretty much the same thing, but using DNSSEC-signed TLSA records.
maddy policy details
maddy defines two values indicating how "secure" delivery of message will be:
- MX security level
- TLS security level
These values correspond to the problems described above. On delivery, the estabilished connection to the remote server is "ranked" using these values and then they are compared against a number of policies (including local configuration). If the effective value is lower than the required one, the connection is closed and next candidate server is used. If all connections fail this way - the delivery is failed (or deferred if there was a temporary error when checking policies).
Below is the table summarizing the security level values defined in maddy and protection they offer.
|MTA-STS||-||P||PA (see note 1)|
Legend: P - protects against passive attacks; A - protects against active attacks
- MX level: None. MX candidate was returned as a result of DNS lookup for the recipient domain, no additional checks done.
- MX level: MTA-STS. Used MX matches the MTA-STS policy published by the recepient domain (even one in testing mode).
MX level: DNSSEC. MX record is signed.
TLS level: None. Plaintext connection was estabilished, TLS is not available or failed.
- TLS level: Encrypted. TLS connection was estabilished, the server certificate failed X.509 and DANE verification.
- TLS level: Authenticated. TLS connection was estabilished, the server certificate passes X.509 or DANE verification.
Note 1: Persistent attacker able to control network connection can interfere with policy refresh, downgrading protection to be secure only against passive attacks.
maddy security policies
See maddy-targets(5) page for description of configuration options available for each policy mechanism supported by maddy.